The Review of International Affairs (RIA) Journal Archive
The Review of International Affairs (RIA) Vol. 72 No. 1183/2021
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2021 72(1183):5-28
Any discourse on regional economic integration is incomplete without the discussion of the importance of connectivity. Enormous opportunities and growth generated by Asia in the recent past may stop at their international borders in the absence of adequate connectivity. Therefore, the paper is set to review the overall presence of the transport corridors which connect India with Southeast Asian countries. Hence a brief examination of India’s initiation of connectivity corridors, like the Trilateral Highway (TH), the Kaladan Multi-modal Transit Transport Project (KMTTP), the Bangladesh–China–India–Myanmar Economic Corridor (BCIM-EC), and the Mekong India Economic Corridor (MIEC). Their impact on the regional economy at the national level and on the economic development of the connected areas is at the heart of this paper. Second, it attempts to find out the potential determinants of the existing freight over the economic corridor. Findings from the paper recommend that GDP and road density are positively related to the volume of freight. Once these corridors are operational, the connected region will reap more economic benefits than the noncorridor countries.
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2021 72(1183):29-46
In this research, geoeconomics was analysed separately, as a theoretical concept and as a strategic practice. The aim is to conduct detailed analysis, systematization, classification and explanation of different types of geoeconomic means, as a key part of geoeconomic practice. The basic hypothesis is that in the mass of economic means used by states in international relations, there are natural lines of their demarcation and inner logic, which allow them to be classified and to explain their different purposes. The research has resulted in the classification of geoeconomic means into forced, penetrating and protective means. It provides the basis for a deeper analysis, explanations, and predictions of the geostrategies of participants in international relations. The explanation of the groups of geoeconomic means indicates the expediency of the suggested classification and implies that it can be a useful tool for authors of geoeconomics, but also for planners in creating consistent geoeconomic strategies.
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2021 72(1183):47-66
Political risk assessment (PRA) is usually performed at the national polity level. With a novel and globally significant reality exposed in the Belt and Road Initiative, the vast Eurasian space has risen high on the political risk assessment agenda. This has especially become dominant in Western academic narratives. How the various PRAs find their place in practice is an issue that constitutes a significant scientific void. This study aims to supplement such vivid endeavours by reviewing the current state of research and applying its findings to three regions: China’s geographical neighbourhood, Southeast and Central Europe, and Central Asia and the Middle East. Firstly, the findings of several major studies into the fifth so-called “Grand Strategy” of the People’s Republic of China as a major driver of its security policy will be contextualized. This will be followed by two segments, one which will stress the rudiments of PRA both in terms of the geographical realm and the modus operandi of the process. The second segment is devoted to contemporary scientific endeavours that include Big Data and deployment of artificial intelligence tools to determine the level and nature of political risk across the BRI space. After the findings are systematized, their implications for the BRI countries in the wake of the latest challenges will be underlined, such as the investment critiques and the decline in euphoria about the format “17+1”. The results demonstrate a significant change in the components of political risk for most of the Eurasian countries, which will consequently influence the process of reformulation of China’s foreign and security policy preferences.
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2021 72(1183):67-87
“Dual Circulation” is the new Chinese development paradigm introduced in the latest 14th Five-Year Development Plan. The author of this article explains the origin of the paradigm, how it will be implemented, as well as the main challenges that that present an obstacle to achieving the planned goals. “Dual Circulation” is the logical step in the evolution of the Chinese economy, and the planned results are ambitious. The main challenges in the implementation of the new development concept will be to expand the domestic demand, have more equal regional development, increase the domestic income, implement changes within hukou, increase the high skilled labour force, change the culture of savings, reform the state-owned enterprises, and have innovative development. The main expected changes within the world economy will be regionalization, increased selfreliance, and changes within global production and supply chain
ERDOGAN AND GULEN: A FORMER FRIEND IS WORSE THAN AN ENEMY
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2021 72(1183):89-92
EUROPE IN CHANGES: THE OLD CONTINENT AT A NEW CROSSROADS
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2021 72(1183):93-97