The Review of International Affairs (RIA) Journal Archive
The Review of International Affairs (RIA) Vol. 70 No. 1173/2019
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2019 70(1173):5-23
It is known that foreign remittances are current private transfers from migrant workers residing in the host country for more than a year to recipients in their country of origin regardless of their immigration status. Transfers of migrants are defined as their net income of which a portion is transferred from the host country to the country of origin at the time of migration. Compensation of employees is the income of migrants who have lived in the host country for less than a year. Remittances play an important role in the economic development of the countries of emigration, individual households and businesses. However, it is relatively unknown that non-monetary remittances are also of great importance for the migrant countries of origin. The author of this article is focused on the importance of non-monetary transfers, which are known in the literature as well as socioeconomic and cultural contribution. This article is based on the concept of Peggy Levitt (1998) non-monetary remittances as well as the expansion of social norms, practices and social capital to and from the countries of origin of migrants; which means that migration involves the flow of ideas, knowledge, identity, and cultural values. The article claims that the attitudes of migrants in their relationship with other social institutions such as the family and the state, help to understand better the specific contexts within the country of origin that may perpetuate or interfere with the networks of migrants, including the rapid emergence and consolidation of new networks. The author claims that the diaspora and migrants can play a key role in the development of the home country by the presentation of its rich and diverse experiences. Engaging the Diaspora in the development of the home country largely depends on it. Talented people remain an important component of the country and the enterprise’s long-term competitiveness. Therefore, special attention is paid to the role of highly skilled and highly educated migrants.
(UN)SUCCESSFUL ENFORCEMENT OF DEMOCRACY: THE CASE STUDY OF THE HIGH REPRESENTATIVE IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2019 70(1173):24-44
The peculiar case of a strong and powerful international presence in Bosnia and Herzegovina embodied through the institution of the High Representative, as well as its impact on democracy has already been approached from various perspectives. However, some questions still remain, most notably those concerning one of the fundamental and necessary elements of democracy – the effective power to govern in the hands of the elected representatives. Focusing on this issue, the article attempts to provide an answer to two questions: firstly, what were the implications of arbitrary imposition of decisions by the High Representative for the effective power to govern of the elected representatives and secondly, why is the effective power to govern in the hands of the elected representatives a crucial component for successful functioning of democracy in Bosnia and Herzegovina? By relying on the theory of Embedded democracy by Wolfgang Merkel and methodology based on the understanding and measurement of power by Max Weber and Robert Dahl, the author seeks to contribute to current debates about democracy and democratic consolidation in post-conflict societies. However, he also tries to assess the implications of the use of the Bonn powers and the arbitrary imposition of decisions by the High Representative on the effective power to govern by the elected representatives and explain the reasoning behind the very idea of governance by the elected officials for the successful functioning of democracy.
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2019 70(1173):45-60
Japan-China relations enter a new “Two Giants” era, unprecedented in the history of East Asia. Multi-dimensional interdependence between Japan and China has been proceeding rapidly as one of the most positive factors in terms of pushing forward the bilateral relationship for the long run. However, emotions among the public from the two sides are problematic and uncertain, and it is crucial to investigate how to “normalize” people-to-people emotions. Contingency events, which tend to lead to inward-looking, and to narrow nationalism, always undermine Japan-China relations. The “Nationalization” crisis in 2012 is one of the typical cases from which the two nations should absorb the lessons deliberately. A lack of facts and truthful information, failure of diplomatic communication, simultaneously rising nationalism and declining governance capability and transforming power balance in the Asia-Pacific region created the crisis over the uninhabited islands. How Japan and China can overcome these dilemmas and manage the complicated bilateral relationship more effectively? Beyond continuously promoting multi-dimensional interdependence, the two sides have to establish channels and mechanisms of crisis management in order to avoid the bilateral relationship being constantly threatened by the occurrence of contingency events and rampant, irresponsible nationalism.
THE IMPACT OF CHINESE INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS ON DEVELOPMENT OF HOST ECONOMIES: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM PAKISTAN ECONOMY
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2019 70(1173):61-76
This paper examines the impact of Chinese investments in infrastructure facilities within the Belt and Road initiative (BRi) on the economies of host countries. Pakistan was selected for the case study as one of the first destinations of Chinese FDi within the BRi, which allows necessary time distance for the research. its important geographical position at the new Silk Road traces, a significant amount of Chinese investment, and evidence of both positive and negative effects of Chinese penetration, are the additional reasons for choosing Pakistan for a case study. Using Multivariate Analysis methods, the impact of Chinese FDi and total FDi on several key economic indicators of Pakistan are measured and compared separately. The results show a much stronger and more positive impact of Chinese investment than total FDi but also point to the direction of a change, such as increasing of import, and potential challenges, such as external debt to China.
“CHINA CONNECTS THE WORLD – WHAT’S BEHIND THE BELT AND ROAD INITIATIVE”
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2019 70(1173):77-79