The Review of International Affairs (RIA) Journal Archive
The Review of International Affairs (RIA) Vol. 64 No. 1151/2013
Political Theory and International Relations
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2013 64(1151):7-45
two great thinkers of the XVIII century – Montesquieu (1689–1755) and Rousseau (1712–1778) – developed new and specific ideas and published literary, historical, sociological, political, legal, philosophical works. their works and doctrines were contradistinguished. Both authors passed away, but later their ideas were implemented as active ideologues and leaders, with different results. More efficient were those who implemented ideas and engaged liberal ideologues, enlighteners, lawyers, politicians, revolutionaries in the French Revolution. Successors of Montesquieu’s and Rousseau’s ideas, successfully implanted ideas-values in the ‘Déclaration des Droits de l’Homme et du Citoyen’. Girondins accepted basic ideas from Montesquieu, and Jacobins from Rousseau. two sides with opposite conceptions and political systems and democracy. One side claimed legality and human rights; and the other – people’s sovereignty and revolution. the moderate liberal constitutionalist ideas were inspired by Montesquieu’s works succeeded and in history achieved results. these ideas were man’s freedom, spirit of laws, constitutionalism and its framework, separation of powers, representative democracy, federalism - and Girondins were active in mentioned ideas and early years of the Revolution. Jacobins based ideological programs on the ground of Rousseau’s ideas: equality, ‘forcing people to be free,’ ‘the general will’, people’s sovereignty defined as ‘absolute, indivisible and inalienable,’ the principle of unity power (government), ‘despotism of virtue’, mass political actions. the French Revolution experienced some features like the English Civil War. But, the mixture of some ideas of Montesquieu and Rousseau was used in ‘Declaration’ (1789), and the French Constitution of 1791. the American founding fathers incorporated some ideas from Montesquieu for American Constitution, like federalism, separation of powers, etc. the ideas of Montesquieu were paradigmatic and successful in establishing institutions in many countries. Some Rousseau’s ideas were radical, supported by left movements but were not successful (Corsica, Poland, and different leftists up today).
International Economy and Economics
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2013 64(1151):46-73
The shadow economy is a challenge for economic and social policy – not only in OECD countries, but also in transition countries. the evolutionary theory of the shadow economy explains its expansion to official institutions and rules – what leads to institutional change. In addition, the causes and effects of the rise of the shadow economy are discussed. Failing economic policy is confirmed to be the most important cause for the strong increase in shadow economic activity. A high tax burden, high regulation density and inadequate supply of public goods (like the guarantee of property rights, the provision of infrastructure) are important reasons for the migration into the shadow economy. In transition countries the lack of stable institutions, inefficient administration and corruption are – in combination with reduced (tax) morality and decreased loyalty to the state – are also driving forces of informal economic activities. the tendency to engage in shadow economic activities should be perceived by the politicians as a warning signal. there is an increased reseed by the adoption of a ‘two pillar strategy’. the strategy suggests measures that will help to decrease the attractiveness of the ‘Exit option’ and to strengthen the ‘Voice-Option’.
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2013 64(1151):74-86
The main goal of this paper is to understand the situation, dynamic and tendencies in active population and employment in Serbia and Macedonia and indicate key problems as a result of impact of the world economic crises on these variables. Employment rate decrees to the levels which are much lower than 50 percent. It endangers the economies of Serbiaand Macedonia in the global economy and in the context of their European integrations. the basic structural characteristics of the active population and employment in both countries were researched. A comparative approach is logical and possible as Serbia and Macedonia has similar levels of economic development, economic structure and problems.they are some of a few European countries with a lowest rate of active population and employment, and highest rate of unemployment. Quantitative changes in the active population and employment in Serbia and Macedonia in the last decade are determined. their changes are related to ones in the countries of the EU. those data are used to explore if the world crises contribute to approximation or digression of Serbia and Macedonia to the levels of those indicators in EU. As EU already established a goal to realize the growth of their employment rate to the level of 75 percent by 2020, it becomes extremely important for Serbia and Macedonia to achieve and maintain the growth of employment rate so the EU integration should be effectively possible. thisis not possible without higher and sustainable growth of those economies in the future.
International Law and Relations
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2013 64(1151):87-103
In recent years, the South China Sea area has been increasingly struck by the territorial disputes between China and Taiwan on one side, and Brunei, Malaysia, Philippines and Vietnam, on the other side. These disputes are the causes of the turbulences that jeopardise peace and security in South-East Asia. The territories over which the states mentioned above dispute against each other are the islands of Spartly, Paracel and Pratas and Macclesfield Bank. Although the specific conditions are different concerning the territorial disputes, all the states see a chance to ensure their economic interests in the global competition for natural resources above all, in the field of energy supply and fishing. As the territorial disputes concern sovereignty, which is by the rule related to psychological factors (nationalistic feelings and dignity of the people) and historical heritage (that not in a small number of cases is coloured by a heavy colonial past) no party to the dispute is willing to make any concession to the other party. This shows that the dispute could not be settled so easily and overcome by peaceful means without the interference of foreign factors. In the study that follows the author does an international legal analysis of the disputes in the South China Sea explaining their impact on the regional security.
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2013 64(1151):104-118
The authors of this paper analyze the progress made in relations with the countries surrounding Serbia – in the regions of South East Europe and the Western Balkans, and upon the formation of the new government of Serbia (27th July 2012). In this regard, they point out the improvement of bilateral relations with the countries of the so-called old neighborhood (Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Italy, Albania and Greece), as well as the ‘new’ neighbors (Macedonia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia). Therefore, the authors emphasize that it is not only the continuity of the policy of improving relations in the region, but some concrete actions to advance a good-neighborly relations have been taken as well. According to the authors resolution of many accumulated problems with neighbors will result in acceleration of the process of European integration of Serbia and the rest of the Western Balkans. This will prove to be a significant benefit to citizens of all countries in this part of Europe. Serbia has thus positioned itself as a reliable regional partner for its immediate environment, as well as to the leading factors of world politics, the authors conclude.
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2013 64(1151):119-144
The article explores the contentional notion of ‘double standard’ in minority protection in the original European Union (EU) member states and those that have joined it later, or are still wishing to join it. It starts by citing the authors that speak about the double standard, and it shows that no matter what the ideological position of the author is (whether he defends it or attacks) they all agree that the double standard exists. Then, the article concentrates on some exemplary practices of states towards their minorities and asymmetric reactions of the main actors such as the EU and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) towards those practices. It is shown that the reactions tended to be criticism for ones, and indulgence for the others. The article goes on showing that with some notable exceptions, which in the opinion of the authors just enforce the argument that there exist no unified criteria for minorities protection across Europe, minorities legislation in the countries that acceded later in time, or are still awaiting the accession, are much more in-depth and extensive in view of the types of rights they include in their provisions than the original members. In addition to it, they tend to cover those communities that do not enjoy the status of national minorities in original member states. This state of affairs puts minorities across what should be a common standard European legal system in a rather fragmented and disbalanced situation. This situation can, however, lead to very similar social problems, such as the social discontent of the unprotected minorities in original members and disintegration of unstable and young societies in newer members or candidates for membership.
INTER-PARLIAMENTARY UNION―PARLIAMENTARY UNITED NATIONS
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2013 64(1151):145-147
EUROPEAN CHURCHES ENGAGING IN HUMAN RIGHTS―PRESENT CHALLENGES AND TRAINING MATERIAL
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2013 64(1151):148-149
Serbia 2013 Progress Report
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2013 64(1151):151-238