The Review of International Affairs (RIA) Journal Archive
The Review of International Affairs (RIA) Vol. 63 No. 1148/2012
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2012 63(1148):5-24
The article discusses the re-emergence of ethno-politics as the determining factor for regional strategy in the Balkans, after the wars of disintegration of the former Yugoslavia 1991–1995, the subsequent NATO intervention over Kosovo in 1999, and the resulting declaration of independence of Kosovo and its gradual international consolidation. This has important strategic consequences for NATO and the EU in the region. While all Balkan countries have a future EU membership as their “number one” foreign policy priority, and all apart from Serbia have either joined, or are in the process of joining NATO, Kosovo’s independence and the related upsurge of ethnic unrest in Macedonia suggest that the very South-East of the region is drawn once again into an essentially ethnonationalist strategy, which NATO and the EU will have little manoeuvring room to counter. The authors suggest that the way forward is to bravely meet Albanian ethnic demands half-way through territorial settlements by way of a new series of diplomatic conferences on the Balkans.
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2012 63(1148):25-37
Iran’s ongoing nuclear development program continues to represent a source of tensions with the international community, despite public pledges that the program is peaceful and would never be used for military purposes. While the media attention focuses on the possible conventional intervention, the Western response, when it comes, might take on the form of special war or subversion within Iran. Yet any form of intervention could have far-reaching consequences, for both the region and the world.
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2012 63(1148):38-51
International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991 (ICTY) was established by Resolution 827 of the UN Security Council, on 25th May 1993. Such establishment of the international tribunal led to it being disputed, primarily due to the fact that it was established by the UN body, which does not have judicial authorizations and therefore cannot transfer them to one of its subsidiary organs. However, the ICTY has successfully fought all challenges of such nature out, but it triggered a series of debates in the professional community with promotion of new forms of criminal responsibility - from impugnment to unconditional approval. With critical review of specific interpretation of the concept of command responsibility and construction of joint criminal enterprise through practice of ICTY, the autor points out the tribunal’s inconsistency in interpretation of these forms of criminal responsibility, as well as the presence of elements of strict liability, otherwise unallowed in criminal law.
The Importance of Preventive Acting in the field of Crime Suppression with the Reference to Strategic Acts of the Western Balkan Countries
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2012 63(1148):52-70
Criminality is a very complex phenomenon and it is a national problem in all countries - developed countries and developing countries. In the field of crime is particularly highlighted organized crime. Organized crime is a significant threat to security, in national and international scale. Crime prevention is focused on the prevention of occurrence some of the forms of crime. Preventive action involve a range of different political, economic and legal measures taken by states at national, regional and international levels. Preventive fight against crime is based on certain principles that together meet the basic criminalpolitical goal, and it is successfully fight against crime, with legal, humane, legitimate treatment, with respect for human rights and freedoms. In the current social circumstances, repressive measures are a necessity in combating organized crime, and prevention is orientation of modern criminal policy, which is lately accented, because over time it became clear that the reactive approach, which focuses on the event, is not sufficiently effective in preventing criminal activities. Realizing the importance of preventive activities in the area of crime, Western Balkan Countries have adopted appropriate National Strategic Acts to regulate this area. These Strategic Acts are presented in more details in this paper.
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2012 63(1148):71-90
Taking as a starting point some methodological dilemmas the paper points to the general frameworks of the European Union’s (EU) security policy concerning the position and role the environmental field plays in the EU policy and regulations. It is pointed out to the place environmental problems take in the foreign and security policy. The basic elements of the EU environmental policy and regulations which are significant are for security are especially analysed and these are as follows: industrial pollution control and risk management, nuclear security and radioactive waste, chemicals management, waste management, air protection, water resources management, nature protection, noise protection, etc. In the last part of the article, the authors point to the place and significance of the environment in the security policy of the Republic of Serbia (RS) especially within the context of harmonisation of national legislations with EU laws. The fundamental thesis that is being proven in the paper is that environmental problems take their normatively defined position in the security policy and they have been quite precisely built neither in the security policy of EU nor in the security policy of the Republic of Serbia.
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2012 63(1148):91-98
In 2004, the EU started the process of CARDS States acquiring the EU membership by introducing the aviation Law, in order to provide for air traffic safety and security. Paradoxical as it was, it proved to become a good introduction for the incoming process of organizing full EU membership for the CARDS States. At that time compatibility of CARDS States with the European Union Aviation Law was very complex but too important to achieve. It required creating a sustainable organizational and methodological framework for the purpose. At the time, all the CARDS States (Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia & Montenegro, Albania, Macedonia), with the exception of Croatia, were far from the European standards and legislature in the field of the Aviation Law. On the other hand, given the security and safety specifics of the aviation law and the specifics of the Western Balkans States at that time, two major issues were to be resolved: first, to provide for organizational and methodological framework for drafting amendments to what was missing in the CARDS States Aviation Law compared to the EU Aviation Law, and second, which turned to be much more complex, to induce the political will of the countries concerned to firmly cooperate with each other.
COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2012 63(1148):99-182