The Review of International Affairs (RIA) Journal Archive

The Review of International Affairs (RIA) Vol. 62 No. 1144/2011


Favoring Retribution? A Study on the Factors Influencing the Choice of the Transitional Justice Approach in the Aftermath of the Genocide in Rwanda 1994-19962
Bettina Heller
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2011 62(1144):5-42
Abstract ▼
This article inquires why Rwanda applied retributive justice in the aftermath of the 1994 genocide. Considering the devastation the country found itself in as well as the prominence of restorative approaches in Africa, it seems astonishing that Rwanda enacted extensive prosecution as the main policy to deal with the genocide. In order to account for that phenomenon, various factors are examined with regards to their influence on the choice of a particular transitional justice approach in Rwanda. The theoretical foundation of the research is derived from the transitional justice framework and existing work on the possible correlation between factors present before, during and after a transition and type of transitional justice approach pursued. The paradigms of retributive and restorative justice are introduced as values of the dependent variable, which is type of transitional justice applied. After a discussion of the theoretical framework, the article proceeds to an in-depth analysis of the Rwandan case study. Here, the particular values that the independent variables nature of the previous regime, transition type, external actors and foreign policy considerations, and values and beliefs held by decision-makers take on are explored. The choice of a retributive approach is finally explained as a result of the combination of the discussed variables.
Terrorism Financing and Official Financial Institutions
Kosta Sandić
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2011 62(1144):43-67
Abstract ▼
The subject of this paper is the politicological aspect of the methods and techniques of preventing and combating terrorist financing through money laundering in official financial institutions, based on the application of modern achievements in the methodology of political, criminological, legal, economic, sociological and history sciences, as well as the possibility of further capacity building of the society and political subjects in the successful organisation of detecting, understanding, analysing and undertaking countermeasures. The issue is primarily of intellectual nature and essentially refers to the area of insight in terrorist financing through money laundering, as follows: the existing knowledge on terrorism, the existing knowledge on money laundering, the existing knowledge on interrelations between these two social phenomena, the existing knowledge on the consequences of these phenomena, the existing knowledge on the methods and techniques applied in the processes of terrorist financing through money laundering, the existing knowledge on the policies and methods of implementation of the countermeasures of the international community and local communities aimed at combating these phenomena, security as a social phenomenon. The basis for comprehensive understanding of this phenomenon is a precise scientific definition of the following: first, the phenomenon itself; second, the methodologies and techniques of its presentation, third, social significance and consequences of this phenomenon, fourth, methodologies of monitoring and measuring its effects, fifth, methodology, implementation and monitoring of the effects of countermeasures of the social and international community. Terrorist financing through money laundering has been defined as a very complex process of various relations established for the purpose of attempting or successfully obtaining or raising funds or assets, aimed at their use or with the awareness that they may be used fully or partially in the performance of a terrorist act, by terrorists or terrorist organisations. The subject of study are, therefore, the relations between the elements of the process of terrorist financing through money laundering based on modern politicological and methodological knowledge.
International Law Regulation of Territorial Dispute in the East China Sea Between Japan and China
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2011 62(1144):68-77
Abstract ▼
The present article deals principally with certain aspects concerning the possible International law regulation of the Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands dispute between Japan and China. The Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands dispute has seen sporadic flare-up over the last few decades that have led to bilateral tensions. Since rich natural and energy resources were founded in the continental shelf of the East China Sea and the contiguous area of the Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands in the late 1960s, the East China Sea started to be place of territorial disputes between Japan and China. Although both States have signed the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, they go up against in their interpretations of how the Convention applies to the disputed area. The two countries have conflicting views on where the demarcation line between their respective exclusive economic zones and continental shelf’s should be placed. In spite of previous efforts to institutionalize the territorial dispute, the East China Sea has remained key waters for both countries wishing to gain or preserve geopolitical influence in the region. However, since the beginning of the 21st century, the political and security environment has changed, Japan and China evaluate its territorial approaches and foster their relationship in the East China Sea, because the management of territorial dispute has great influence on regional as well as international stability.
Energy Security as a Basis for Affirmation of Environmental Policy of the European Union
Zoran Pavlović, Željko Đ. Bjelajac, Žaklina Spalević
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2011 62(1144):78-96
Abstract ▼
Endangerment of the environment and its protection represent decades-old problem of humankind. With disappearance of the harmony between the nature and man, various and numerous dangers have appeared which degrade civilization achievements, cause great harm to people, their life and health, bodily integrity and many other values. Therefore, the significance of environmental protection imposes itself as the major global challenge of modern society. Hence, different issues in the field of the environment or in connection with it take up a substantial part of the activities of the EU, which is recently been undertaking more comprehensive and intensive political actions in this domain. The EU largely owes its own formation to energy, and energy development is acceptable only with the preservation of the environment, which is obligation of humankind in order to safeguard the future. Those countries that have managed to harmonize the following fields: environmental protection, economic growth and regular energy supply, can be rightfully regarded as safe countries in terms of energy. Bearing in mind all the above said, the position that the process of accession of Serbia in the field of energy, within its European integration, is substantially the most important process, is fully grounded.
Nuclear and Bioterrorism Implication on Environment
Mina Zirojević, Miloš Marković, Milan Počuča
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2011 62(1144):97-108
Abstract ▼
Terrorism is now a global threat, spreading its shadows over regions which were previously regarded as the exclusive domain of the military superpowers. One of the prime threats is nuclear terrorism, using nuclear or radiological agents. To assess the threat, it is important to include all factors that make it possible.
United States Ideological Legacy in the flat World
Gordana Bekčić Pješčić
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2011 62(1144):109-126
Abstract ▼
This article argues change of image of fundamental US principles in modern international relations. While the creators of USA had not had any kind of agenda regarding spreading American values outside the borders of the Union, shift in foreign policy from the beginning of 20th century till today made completely different narrative about US basic principles. On one hand this approach was necessary in the period of the Second World War and Cold War that followed, representing strong ideology of freedom against Soviet bloc. On the other, in American global military and economically overstretching in last twenty years, narrative about US mission in promoting freedom and democracy is no longer accepted as a justification for a number of steps taken in the field of foreign affairs.
Social Dimenzions of the Theoretical New Types of Organized Crime
Miodrag Labović
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2011 62(1144):127-146
Abstract ▼
The study take a systemic and qualitative approach. The research is founded on long-term authors survey based on the statistical indications and 37 in-depth interviews with officials. The findings of this article are: Five types of organized crime were identified. Besides well-known types of organized crime, this study found two new types of organized crime; institutional and institutionalized organized crime. This new typology distinguish from the previous typologies because criteria were taken are not only by organizational shapes, but also criteria such as: social connections, establishment of the organized crime in the statepolitical structures, a high rate of damage which has been made in the society. The key point of this research is founded on authors capability of abstract perception for resolving the social control of institutional organized crime. The statistical indications and data collection by the in-depth interviews are very important. However, original visions and new ideas of the authors for resolving the greatest problems in the society always has been a key factor of each relevant idea in the field of natural and social science. The practical implications of this article represent a useful guidelines for governments to deal with institutional organized crime: foundation of optimal independent agency; new operational tactics and methods. Of course, this solution needs political will for appropriate legal changes. The scientific value and one of the main point of this study is finding solution for exceeding a high rate of institutional organized crime. For that purpose, this study found that the problem might be resolved if in the legal system will be foreseen foundation of optimal independent institution against institutional type of organized crime which is inseparably linked with high type of corruption. Optimal independent institutions means independent from the government, but not from the wide social control. This solution is guided by the knowledge that all governments in the world has a huge power, but the governments in the fragile societies has a quite huge concentration of power. The developed countries with traditional democracy, political culture and law awareness can be dealing with this problem. But in the transitional and undeveloped countries there is lack of such determinative factors and the governments are really dominant source of institutional organized crime.

Book Reviews

The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2011 62(1144):147-149

Research Guide

Research Guide for Peace and Conflict Resolution Studies
Vujo Ilić, Nemanja Džuverović
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2011 62(1144):150-156


Rural development and employment in the Western Balkans
Staffan Nilsson
The Review of International Affairs (RIA), 2011 62(1144):157-170